PPP (Point to Point Protocol)

Posted: 7 September 2011 in Diagnosa WAN
Fauzi Awaludin

PPP(Point  to Point Protocol)

Bandung, 30 Agustus 2011
XII TKJ A Instruktur : Rudi Haryadi S.TNeti amaliah
Diagnosa WAN

              I.      Pengertian

PPP adalah sebuah protokol yang mengatur hubungan komunikasi antara dua buah host secara Point to Point. Dengan menggunakan PPP, konfigurasi pada saat koneksi dilakukan secara otomatis berkat adanya LCP (Link Control Protocol ). Atau menuruprotocol yang meng-enkapsulasi jaringan yang banyak digunakan pada Wide Area Network (WAN). Protokol ini merupakan standar industri yang berjalan pada lapisan data link dan dikembangkan pada awal tahun 1990-an sebagai respons terhadap masalah-masalah yang terjadi pada protokol Serial Line internet Protokol (SLIP), yang hanya mendukung Pengalamatan IP statis kepada para Kliennya. Dibandingkan dengan pendahulunya (SLIP), PPP jauh lebih baik, mengingat kerja protokol ini lebih cepat, menawarkan koreksi Kesalahan dan negosiasi sesi secara dinamis tanpa adanya intervensi dari pengguna. Selain itu, protokol ini juga mendukung banyak protokol-protokol jaringan secara simultan. PPP didefinisikan pada RFC 1661 dan RFC 1662

PPP merupakan data link protokol yang digunakan untuk melakukan koneksi secara langsung antara dua node melalui kabel serial, line telepon, trunk line, telepon selular, jalur radio yang special, atau fiber optik. Mayoritas ISP menggunakan PPP bagi pelanggannya yang menggunakan metode dial-up saat melakukan koneksi ke internet.

  1.            II.      System PPP di windows

This article describes the Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) Discovery Stage. Microsoft Windows XP only provides a PPPoE client, not a PPPoE server.

To establish a PPPoE connection, the Ethernet address of the remote PPPoE server must be obtained. Additionally, a unique session identifier must also be negotiated. The method to obtain this information is referred to as the PPPoE Discovery Stage.

The PPPoE Discovery Stage is made up of four steps: initiation, offer, request, and session confirmation:

  1. The PPPoE Active Discovery Initiation (PADI) packet:
    The PPPoE client sends out a PADI packet to the broadcast address. This packet can also populate the “service-name” field if a service name has been entered on the dial-up networking properties of the PPPoE broadband connectoid. If a service name has not been entered, this field cannot be populated.
  2. The PPPoE Active Discovery Offer (PADO) packet:
    The PPPoE server, or Access Concentrator, should respond to the PADI with a PADO if the Access Concentrator is able to service the “service-name” field that had been listed in the PADI packet. If no “service-name” field had been listed, the Access Concentrator should respond with a PADO packet that has the “service-name” field populated with the service names that the Access Concentrator can service. The PADO packet is sent to the unicast address of the PPPoE client.
  3. The PPPoE Active Discovery Request (PADR) packet:
    When a PADO packet is received, the PPPoE client responds with a PADR packet. This packet is sent to the unicast address of the Access Concentrator. The client may receive multiple PADO packets, but the client responds to the first valid PADO that the client received. If the initial PADI packet had a blank “service-name” field filed, the client populates the “service-name” field of the PADR packet with the first service name that had been returned in the PADO packet.
  4. The PPPoE Active Discovery Session-confirmation (PADS) packet:
    When the PADR is received, the Access Concentrator generates a unique session identification (ID) for the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) session and returns this ID to the PPPoE client in the PADS packet. This packet is sent to the unicast address of the client.

When this process has completed, the client is aware of the address of the Access Concentrator and a session ID has been established. At this point, a normal PPP session begins. This session can remain established until a PPPoE Active Discovery Terminate (PADT) packet is sent. The PADT may be sent by either the Access Concentrator or the PPPoE client.

III.      System PPP di Linux menggunakan pppd (Point to point Protokol Daemon)

PPP adalah protokol yang digunakan untuk membangun link internet melalui dial-up modem, koneksi DSL, dan jenis lain dari point-to-point link. Daemon pppd bekerja sama dengan driver kernel PPP untuk membangun dan menjaga hubungan PPP dengan sistem lain (disebut peer) dan bernegosiasi Internet Protocol (IP) untuk setiap akhir link. Pppd juga dapat mengotentikasi peer dan / atau informasi pasokan otentikasi untuk peer. PPP dapat digunakan dengan protokol jaringan lain selain IP, tetapi penggunaan tersebut menjadi semakin jarang digunakan.

IV.      Manual pppd

Frequently Used Options

ttyname

Use the serial port called ttyname to communicate with the peer. If ttyname does not begin with a slash (/), the string “/dev/” is prepended to ttyname to form the name of the device to open. If no device name is given, or if the name of the terminal connected to the standard input is given, pppd will use that terminal, and will not fork to put itself in the background. A value for this option from a privileged source cannot be overridden by a non-privileged user.

speed

An option that is a decimal number is taken as the desired baud rate for the serial device. On systems such as 4.4BSD and NetBSD, any speed can be specified. Other systems (e.g. Linux, SunOS) only support the commonly-used baud rates.

asyncmap map

This option sets the Async-Control-Character-Map (ACCM) for this end of the link. The ACCM is a set of 32 bits, one for each of the ASCII control characters with values from 0 to 31, where a 1 bit indicates that the corresponding control character should not be used in PPP packets sent to this system. The map is encoded as a hexadecimal number (without a leading 0x) where the least significant bit (00000001) represents character 0 and the most significant bit (80000000) represents character 31. Pppd will ask the peer to send these characters as a 2-byte escape sequence. If multiple asyncmap options are given, the values are ORed together. If no asyncmap option is given, the default is zero, so pppd will ask the peer not to escape any control characters. To escape transmitted characters, use the escape option.

auth

Require the peer to authenticate itself before allowing network packets to be sent or received. This option is the default if the system has a default route. If neither this option nor the noauth option is specified, pppd will only allow the peer to use IP addresses to which the system does not already have a route.

call name

Read additional options from the file /etc/ppp/peers/name. This file may contain privileged options, such as noauth, even if pppd is not being run by root. The name string may not begin with / or include .. as a pathname component. The format of the options file is described below.

connect script

Usually there is something which needs to be done to prepare the link before the PPP protocol can be started; for instance, with a dial-up modem, commands need to be sent to the modem to dial the appropriate phone number. This option specifies an command for pppd to execute (by passing it to a shell) before attempting to start PPP negotiation. The chat (8) program is often useful here, as it provides a way to send arbitrary strings to a modem and respond to received characters. A value for this option from a privileged source cannot be overridden by a non-privileged user.

crtscts

Specifies that pppd should set the serial port to use hardware flow control using the RTS and CTS signals in the RS-232 interface. If neither the crtscts, the nocrtscts, the cdtrcts nor the nocdtrcts option is given, the hardware flow control setting for the serial port is left unchanged. Some serial ports (such as Macintosh serial ports) lack a true RTS output. Such serial ports use this mode to implement unidirectional flow control. The serial port will suspend transmission when requested by the modem (via CTS) but will be unable to request the modem to stop sending to the computer. This mode retains the ability to use DTR as a modem control line.

defaultroute

Add a default route to the system routing tables, using the peer as the gateway, when IPCP negotiation is successfully completed. This entry is removed when the PPP connection is broken. This option is privileged if the nodefaultroute option has been specified.

disconnect script

Execute the command specified by script, by passing it to a shell, after pppd has terminated the link. This command could, for example, issue commands to the modem to cause it to hang up if hardware modem control signals were not available. The disconnect script is not run if the modem has already hung up. A value for this option from a privileged source cannot be overridden by a non-privileged user.

escape xx,yy,…

Specifies that certain characters should be escaped on transmission (regardless of whether the peer requests them to be escaped with its async control character map). The characters to be escaped are specified as a list of hex numbers separated by commas. Note that almost any character can be specified for the escape option, unlike the asyncmap option which only allows control characters to be specified. The characters which may not be escaped are those with hex values 0x20 – 0x3f or 0x5e.

file name

Read options from file name (the format is described below). The file must be readable by the user who has invoked pppd.

init script

Execute the command specified by script, by passing it to a shell, to initialize the serial line. This script would typically use the chat(8) program to configure the modem to enable auto answer. A value for this option from a privileged source cannot be overridden by a non-privileged user.

lock

Specifies that pppd should create a UUCP-style lock file for the serial device to ensure exclusive access to the device. By default, pppd will not create a lock file.

mru n

Set the MRU [Maximum Receive Unit] value to n. Pppd will ask the peer to send packets of no more than n bytes. The value of n must be between 128 and 16384; the default is 1500. A value of 296 works well on very slow links (40 bytes for TCP/IP header + 256 bytes of data). Note that for the IPv6 protocol, the MRU must be at least 1280.

mtu n

Set the MTU [Maximum Transmit Unit] value to n. Unless the peer requests a smaller value via MRU negotiation, pppd will request that the kernel networking code send data packets of no more than n bytes through the PPP network interface. Note that for the IPv6 protocol, the MTU must be at least 1280.

passive

Enables the “passive” option in the LCP. With this option, pppd will attempt to initiate a connection; if no reply is received from the peer, pppd will then just wait passively for a valid LCP packet from the peer, instead of exiting, as it would without this option.

Options

<local_IP_address>:<remote_IP_address>

Set the local and/or remote interface IP addresses. Either one may be omitted. The IP addresses can be specified with a host name or in decimal dot notation (e.g. 150.234.56.78). The default local address is the (first) IP address of the system (unless the noipdefault option is given). The remote address will be obtained from the peer if not specified in any option. Thus, in simple cases, this option is not required. If a local and/or remote IP address is specified with this option, pppd will not accept a different value from the peer in the IPCP negotiation, unless the ipcp-accept-local and/or ipcp-accept-remote options are given, respectively.

ipv6 <local_interface_identifier>,<remote_interface_identifier>

Set the local and/or remote 64-bit interface identifier. Either one may be omitted. The identifier must be specified in standard ascii notation of IPv6 addresses (e.g. ::dead:beef). If the ipv6cp-use-ipaddr option is given, the local identifier is the local IPv4 address (see above). On systems which supports a unique persistent id, such as EUI-48 derived from the Ethernet MAC address, ipv6cp-use-persistent option can be used to replace the ipv6 <local>,<remote> option. Otherwise the identifier is randomized.

active-filter filter-expression

………………….

more option in http://linux.die.net/man/8/pppd

other resource ::

http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point-to-Point_Protocol

http://support.microsoft.com/kb/282079

Iklan

Tinggalkan Balasan

Isikan data di bawah atau klik salah satu ikon untuk log in:

Logo WordPress.com

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Logout / Ubah )

Gambar Twitter

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Facebook

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Google+

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Logout / Ubah )

Connecting to %s